md c arm x-ray machine
1. Little C
Main uses 1. Orthopedics: osteopathy, reduction, nailing 2. Surgery: foreign body removal, cardiac catheterization, pacemaker implantation, part of interventional therapy, part of radiography and local photography, etc. 3. Others: cooperate with ozone machine to treat pain, small needle knife treatment, gynecological fallopian tube guided surgery, etc.
2. Middle C
Definition: Peripheral interventional C-shaped arm, usually called "medium C" in the industry, not only increases tube power, it can also be called "medium C". The systemicity and operability of China C product design, mainly through the addition of many DSA-related functions, is a powerful guarantee for complex interventional operations. In clinical practice, it can complete more than 80% of the surgical requirements of the large vascular machine (big C).
Main clinical areas: neurosurgery angiography, subtraction
Gastrointestinal interventional surgery, such as ERCP, esophageal stent
Interventional treatment of abdominal and pelvic organ tumors, such as liver and kidney interventional surgery
Acro Angiography and Plastic Surgery
Pain minimally invasive intervention procedures, such as: lumbar intervertebral disc intervention, cervical spine intervention
Gynecological fallopian tube reconstruction, uterine fibroids surgery
3. Big C
DSA is an advanced X-ray diagnostic technology processed by an electronic computer. This is another major breakthrough in X-ray diagnostic technology after CT. It is mainly used for the diagnosis and treatment of systemic vascular diseases.
Compared with small C and C, large C is fixed, some are fixed on the ceiling, and some are fixed on the ground. The power is usually greater than 80kW.
1. Examination of the vascular system of the head and neck: It can provide diagnostic evidence for craniocerebral space-occupying lesions, arteriovenous malformations, cerebrovascular occlusion, carotid artery stenosis, occlusion, atherosclerosis and ulcers.
2. Thoracic vascular system examination: DSA is very satisfied with the display of the heart and large blood vessels, and can be used to diagnose congenital heart disease, valvular disease, cardiomyopathy and coronary heart disease.
3. Abdominal vascular system examination: used for angiography of stomach, intestine, liver, spleen, pelvis, etc.
4. Check the vascular system of the limbs: it can diagnose stenosis, blockage, hemorrhage, aneurysm and arterial malformation of the limbs.
5. Application of interventional radiology: It is the most ideal interventional radiology technique, which is widely used in percutaneous transluminal angioplasty, transcatheter drug perfusion therapy, transcatheter embolization therapy and other interventional radiotherapy.
Folding radiation protection
C-arm X-ray radiation protection
1. In the field of modern medicine, ionizing radiation technology has played a unique role in the positioning, diagnosis, development and treatment of minimally invasive surgery in orthopedic surgery. However, the potential dangers of medical ionizing radiation that can cause physical harm to people have received increasing attention. During the operation, the awareness of relevant personnel on ionizing radiation protection should be raised, and appropriate protective measures should be taken for on-the-job medical staff and subjects to minimize the harm of ionizing radiation. The protection experience of using the C-arm X-ray machine during the operation is summarized as follows: The current situation of ionizing radiation protection in the operating room The C-arm X-ray machine is used in the C-type X-ray machine (single bulb C-arm machine). Our department is mainly used for orthopedic surgery. In actual work, most medical staff think that the operation is cumbersome. In order to shorten the use time of the C-arm X-ray machine, they should pay more attention to self-protection than others. Long exposure time, excessive exposure and careless or incorrect use of protective equipment. In addition, patients, nurses and other personnel have weak awareness of protection and are in a weak position in ionizing radiation protection.
2. The adverse effects of ionizing radiation on the human body The damage of ionizing radiation to the human body is mainly due to the characteristics of ionizing radiation, which is a biological effect. After the ionizing radiation is irradiated to the human body, it may cause obstacles to living tissue cells and body fluids, and even damage the cells. The damage degree is proportional to the amount of ionizing radiation. Small doses of ionizing radiation can affect important cellular responses, leading to changes in gene expression and inducing cancer. After long-term low-dose irradiation, the most obvious change in peripheral blood cells is leukopenia in varying degrees. The incidence of radiation damage leading to teratogenicity, miscarriage and ectopic pregnancy is higher than that of the normal population. It can make the lens cloudy and produce radioactive cataracts. Can inhibit the hematopoiesis of bone marrow.
3 Protective measures for ionizing radiation
3.1 When the surgical department issues a surgical notice, it should indicate in the surgical notice that the C-arm X-ray machine and its irradiation site will be used. The operating room can arrange operations and prepare protective materials and personnel.
3.2 The surgical nurse should inform the patient of the importance of intraoperative examination during the preoperative visit, and obtain the patient's understanding and cooperation. At the same time, it is necessary to understand the general condition of the patient, such as whether there is a pacemaker, steel plate, screw, intramedullary needle, etc. in the body. Inform the patient to remove the metal items worn before in the operating room to prevent artifacts.
3.3 Intraoperative protection includes the protection of doctors, nurses and patients: the surgeon carefully examines the patient before the operation, and reads X-rays and C-films. Understand the characteristics of anatomical parts and be familiar with images of bone structure. Irradiation that is not diagnostic and therapeutic to the patient should not be performed. Considering the diagnosis and benefit of patients, all radiation should be kept at a reasonable level as low as possible. Improve operational skills to minimize the number of exposures and exposure time. It is recommended to choose a larger operating room to place the mobile C-arm machine, and the walls and doors need to be equipped with protective layers. Before the operator washes his hands, please wear protective materials such as lead caps, lead rings and wrap-around lead suits. Leave those who can leave as much as possible, and those who cannot leave should stay as far away from the radioactive source as possible to reduce the radiation dose. Items in the operating room should be placed neatly. There should not be too many items. Too many items will cause the X-ray scattered light to be refracted and produce secondary light. The dose and intensity of X-rays are proportional to the time the human body is exposed to radiation, that is, the distance is doubled, and the intensity of X-rays is 1/4 of the original X-rays. Three principles of preventing external exposure should be followed during work, namely shortening the exposure time, increasing the distance from the X-ray source and setting up shielding protection. The roving nurse checks the dedicated circuit of the C-arm machine and arranges the placement of related equipment reasonably. Pay attention to aseptic operation during the operation. Remove the metal instruments and gauze from the surgical site before irradiation, cover the C arm with a sterile protective cover, and cover with a sterile towel to prevent contamination of the surgical site. While ensuring sterility and fully exposing the surgical area during radiography or electrophoresis surgery, please use protective equipment to cover the parts that are not involved in disease and shooting, and pay special attention to protecting the patient's thyroid, thymus and gonads. In addition, when performing such operations, a "danger" sign should be hung on the door of the operating room to prevent unrelated persons from entering.
3.4 Operating room nurses are fast-paced, busy at work, nervous, irregular in life, and are in a variety of risk factors, posing a great threat to physical and mental health, and protecting ionizing radiation is one of the important factors. Therefore, on the one hand, surgical nurses should receive regular training in radiation protection knowledge. Understand the laws and regulations of radiation health; on the other hand, it is necessary to arrange surgical staff reasonably to avoid receiving large doses of radiation in a short time. For people who frequently participate in such operations, regular physical examinations should be performed, especially for nurses during pregnancy and nurses who have had multiple abortions. Temporarily avoid or avoid the possibility of exposure.
3.5 C-arm X-ray machine is used for surgical operations. Whether it is a doctor, a nurse or a patient, the radiation dose is still unclear, and there is no health monitoring method. This is unfounded for the diagnosis and protection of radiation sickness. It is recommended that when using the C-arm X-ray machine during operation, the personnel concerned should wear a personal dosimeter. Protective glasses, neck circumference, lead clothing, lead caps, lead screens, etc. are all essential protective equipment in the operating room. Managers should not be bound by the concept of departmental cost accounting. They should update their ideas, put personnel health first, provide adequate protective equipment, and encourage everyone to use them correctly.
Crease repair method
Repair method of image failure of C-arm X-ray machine
The maintenance of the image processing system is the most difficult of all digital mobile C-arm maintenance, because the image processing system is a key component of the imaging system, and the image quality depends on the software processing function, processing accuracy and image processing capabilities. The accuracy of the original data at the time of image acquisition. The imaging system failure is mainly manifested as no image, noisy image, blurred image or image distortion. Therefore, when analyzing and repairing the fault, it should be clearly judged whether the fault is caused by the damage of the image processing system itself, or by the control system or the power supply. This requires maintenance personnel to have the overall maintenance concept of the system.
1. Failure analysis
The power-on self-test is normal and there is no image during the fluoroscopy. The fault may be in the control circuit or the image processing system. The fault may be no X-ray generation, image intensifier failure, image processing system abnormality, monitor abnormality, etc.
2. Overhaul process
First place the dosimeter (if not available, use a cassette instead) in front of the image intensifier. Press the fluoroscopic foot switch to check for radiation. If there is no ray. If the fault is in the control circuit, please check whether high voltage and high current are generated: if there is radiation, it is a fault in image acquisition and processing. Use a digital oscilloscope to measure whether the output signal of CCDB1 is normal. If the waveform is normal, check the image intensifier and camera. If the waveform is abnormal. The fault appears in the image processing section. Use alternative methods to check image processing components. After replacing the CPU board, it is normal.
3. The fault is caused by damage to the CPU-04
It should be noted that the CPU graphics center. All functions are executed under its coordination, so its abnormality will cause the abnormality of the entire image processing system. Digital C-arm X-ray machine image processing maintenance is the most complicated maintenance in the C-arm X-ray machine system. Maintenance methods are not isolated. Incorrect maintenance may use one or more of them, or even the system is operating normally. All methods are required. Only by using it flexibly in practice, can theory and practice be combined. In order to troubleshoot quickly and accurately.